In just a few days Americans everywhere will be homage to our early government leaders by paying tribute to Independence Day, July 4, the signing of the Declaration of the Independence.
This holiday is a favorite for many of us because it brings our families together to share our patriotic fever.
Known as the Fourth of July and Independence Day, July 4 has been a federal holiday in the United States since 1941, but the tradition of Independence Day celebrations goes back to the 18th century and the American Revolution (1775-83).
In addition to parades and barbecues, fireworks are favored by many.
The first fireworks were authorized for July 4, 1777 in Philadelphia, one year after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
In June 1776, representatives of the 13 colonies then fighting in the revolutionary struggle weighed a resolution that would declare their independence from Great Britain.
On July 2, the Continental Congress voted in favor of independence, and two days later its delegates adopted the Declaration of Independence, a historic document drafted by Thomas Jefferson.
From 1776 until the present day, July 4 has been celebrated as the birth of American independence, with typical festivities ranging from fireworks, parades and concerts to more casual family gatherings and barbecues.
The History Channel always does a bang-up job of portraying history and its website on the Declaration of Independence is no exception. Go to http://www.history.com/topics/july-4th
Six features are located on the History Channel 4th of July website:
• July 4 Photo Gallery
• Declaration of Independence Video
• Fourth of July History Video
• Matt Damon: The Declaration of Independence Video
• American Revolution Video
• Jefferson Writes the Declaration of Independence Video
More on Independence Day can be found on the History Channel site in these categories:
• People and Groups: Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, George Washington, John Hancock, Samuel Adams and George III.
• Themes: The U.S. Constitution; Bill of Rights; Articles of Confederation.
• Events: Memorable Elections; Boston Massacre; Boston Tea Party; Battles of Lexington and Concord; Battle of Saratoga and Battles of Yorktown and Virginia Capes.
• Related topics: American Revolution; Memorial Day and Veterans Day.
Let’s read about The Birth of American Independence.
“When the initial battles in the Revolutionary War broke out in April 1775, few colonists desired complete independence from Great Britain, and those who did were considered radical.
“By the middle of the following year, however, many more colonists had come to favor independence, thanks to growing hostility against Britain and the spread of revolutionary sentiments such as those expressed in Thomas Paine’s bestselling pamphlet ‘Common Sense,’ published in early 1776.
“On June 7, when the Continental Congress met at the Pennsylvania State House (later Independence Hall) in Philadelphia, the Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee introduced a motion calling for the colonies’ independence.
“Amid heated debate, Congress postponed the vote on Lee’s resolution, but appointed a five-man committee- including Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, John Adams of Massachusetts, Roger Sherman of Connecticut, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania and Robert R. Livingston of New York — to draft a formal statement justifying the break with Great Britain.
“On July 2nd, the Continental Congress voted in favor of Lee’s resolution for independence in a near-unanimous vote (the New York delegation abstained, but later voted affirmatively).
“On that day, John Adams wrote to his wife Abigail that July 2 ‘will be celebrated, by succeeding generations, as the great anniversary festival’ and that the celebration should include ‘Pomp and Parade…Games, Sports, Guns, Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other.’
“On July 4, the Congress formally adopted the Declaration of Independence, which had been written largely by Jefferson.
“Though the vote for actual independence took place on July 2, from then on the 4th became the day that was celebrated as the birth of American independence.
Early Fourth of July celebrations
“In the pre-Revolutionary years, colonists had held annual celebrations of the king’s birthday, which traditionally included the ringing of bells, bonfires, processions and speechmaking.
“By contrast, during the summer of 1776 some colonists celebrated the birth of independence by holding mock funerals for King George III, as a way of symbolizing the end of the monarchy’s hold on America and the triumph of liberty.
“Festivities including concerts, bonfires, parades and the firing of cannons and muskets usually accompanied the first public readings of the Declaration of Independence, beginning immediately after its adoption.
“Philadelphia held the first annual commemoration of independence on July 4, 1777, while Congress was still occupied with the ongoing war.
“George Washington issued double rations of rum to all his soldiers to mark the anniversary of independence in 1778, and in 1781, several months before the key American victory at Yorktown, Massachusetts became the first state to make July 4th an official state holiday.
“After the Revolutionary War, Americans continued to commemorate Independence Day every year, in celebrations that allowed the new nation’s emerging political leaders to address citizens and create a feeling of unity.
“By the last decade of the 18th century, the two major political parties – Federalists and Democratic-Republicans – that had arisen began holding separate Independence Day celebrations in many large cities.”
July 4 becomes a national holiday
“The tradition of patriotic celebration became even more widespread after the War of 1812, in which the United States again faced Great Britain.
“In 1870, the U.S. Congress made July 4th a federal holiday; in 1941, the provision was expanded to grant a paid holiday to all federal employees.
“Over the years, the political importance of the holiday would decline, but Independence Day remained an important national holiday and a symbol of patriotism.
“Falling in mid-summer, the Fourth of July has since the late 19th century become a major focus of leisure activities and a common occasion for family get-togethers, often involving fireworks and outdoor barbecues.”
Editor’s note: Howard Lestrud is ECM online managing editor.